Sources and acknowledgements

The words, their meanings, the explanations and the example sentences in this dictionary have been gathered over a number of years from a wide variety of written and oral sources, including Māori television programmes. However, the books listed below have been particularly valuable and the author wishes to acknowledge these in particular as major sources of information for this dictionary.

For the vocabulary meanings, grammatical explanations, idioms and colloquial expressions the author wishes to acknowledge the following major sources:

  • Biggs, Bruce. 1998. Let's Learn Maori: A Guide to the Study of the Maori Language. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
  • Deverson, T. & G. Kennedy (eds.). 2005. The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
  • Harlow, Ray. 2001. A Māori Reference Grammar. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Pearson Education New Zealand Limited.
  • Ngata, H. M. 1993. English-Maori Dictionary. Wellington: Learning Media.
  • Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. 1996. Te Matatiki: Contemporary Māori Words. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
  • Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. 1999. He Kohinga Kīwaha. Auckland: Reed.
  • Williams, H.W. 1971. A Dictionary of the Māori Language. Wellington: Government Printer.

For the brief descriptions of the flora and fauna the following have been the main sources and are acknowledged:

  • Crowe, Andrew. 2001. Which Native Tree? Auckland: Penguin Books.
  • Crowe, Andrew. 2001. Which Native Fern? Auckland: Penguin Books.
  • Crowe, Andrew. 2002. Which New Zealand Insect? Auckland: Penguin Books.
  • Crowe, Andrew. 2003. Which Coastal Plant? Auckland: Penguin Books.
  • Crowe, Andrew. 2003. Which Native Forest Plant? Auckland: Penguin Books.
  • Crowe, Andrew. 2004. A Field Guide to the Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Auckland: Penguin Books.
  • Heather, B.D. 2000. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Auckland: Viking.
  • Salmon, J.T. 1980. The Native Trees of New Zealand. Auckland: Heinemann Reed.

Information for many of the important Māori men and women has been gleaned from the following.

  • Orange, C. (ed.). 1990. Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau 1769-1869. Wellington: Allen & Unwin and Te Tari Taiwhenua.
  • Orange, C. (ed.). 1994. Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau 1870-1900. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books and Te Tari Taiwhenua.
  • Orange, C. (ed.). 1996. Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau 1901-1920. Wellington: Auckland University Press and Te Tari Taiwhenua.
  • Orange, C. (ed.). 1998. Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau 1921-1941. Wellington: Auckland University Press and Te Tari Taiwhenua.
  • Orange, C. (ed.). 2000. Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau 1941-1961. Wellington: Auckland University Press and Te Tari Taiwhenua.

The sources of the example sentences and historical loanwords are listed below with the abbreviations used in the dictionary.

Māori-language newspapers:

AO Aotearoa (1892)
HKW He Kupu Whakamarama (1898)
HTK Huia Tangata Kotahi (1893-5)
KA Ko Aotearoa or the Maori Recorder (1861-2)
KO Te Korimako (1882-1890)
KTP Ko te Panui o Aotearoa (1894-6)
Ma He Maramatakahaere (1841-89)
MM The Maori Messenger. Ko te Karere Maori (1849-54)
MM.TKM The Maori Messenger. Te Karere Maori (1855-61)
NH Nga Hua o te Mohiotanga ma nga Tangata Maori (1874)
NHW Nga Hiiringa i te Whitu (1896)
TA Takitimu (1883)
TH Te Haeata (1859-61)
THM Te Hoa Maori (1885-97? 1910?)
THNT Te Hokioi o Niu Tireni e Rere atu na (1863)
TJ The Jubilee. Te Tiupiri (1898-1900)
TK Ko te Karere o Nui Tireni (1842-6)
TKH Te Korimako Hou (1889-90)
TKM The Maori Messenger. Ko te Karere Maori (1849-54)
TKM.MM Te Karere Maori or Maori Messenger (1861-3)
TKOTe Kopara (1913-21)
TKPTe Karere o Poneke (1857-8)
TM Te Matariki (1881)
TMATe Matuhi (1903-06)
TMKTe Mareikura (1911-13)
TMPTe Paki o Matariki (1892-1935?)
TMRThe Maori Record (1904-07)
TMTTe Manuhiri Tuarangi and Maori Intelligencer (1861)
TMUTe Manukura (1916-23)
TPTe Pipiwharauroa (1899-1913)
TPHTe Puke ki Hikurangi (1897-1913)
TPMTe Pihoihoi Mokemoke i runga i te Tuanui (1863)
TRATe Reo o Aotearoa (1932-3)
TTTTe Toa Takitini (1921-32)
TWTe Wananga (1874-8)
TWMTe Waka Maori o Ahuriri (1863-71)
TWMATe Waka Maori o Aotearoa (1884)
TWMNTTe Waka Maori o Niu Tirani (1871-9)

Other sources:

Biggs Bruce. 1998. Let's Learn Maori: A Guide to the Study of the Maori Language. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
DNZB Orange, C. (ed.). Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Auckland: Auckland University Press & Department of Internal Affairs. Volume 1 1990, Volume 2 1993, Volume 3 1996, Volume 4 1998, Volume 5 2000.
H Kāretu, T.S. (ed.) 1992. Te Hīnātore. Kirikiriroa: Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato
HKK Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. 1999. He Kohinga Kīwaha. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Reed
HKKT Papa, Pānia & Rāhui Papa. 2011. He Kohinga Kīwaha nō Tainui. Aotearoa: Takatū.
HM Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. He Muka.
HP Pōtatau, Hēmi. 1991. He Hokinga Mahara. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Longman Paul.
HW Waititi, H.R. 1968. Te Rangatahi 1. Wellington: Government Printer.
Waititi, H.R. 1969. Te Rangatahi 2. Wellington: Government Printer.
HKK Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. 1999. He Kohinga Kīwaha. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Reed
HKK Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. 1999. He Kohinga Kīwaha. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Reed
HKK Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. 1999. He Kohinga Kīwaha. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Reed
HWM Mahupuku, Hikawera Wiremu. (n.d.) Whakapapa Tupuna. Unpublished manuscript.
JPSJournal of the Polynesian Society.
KKāretu, T. 1993. Haka The Dance of a Noble People. Auckland: Reed.
KāretuKāretu, T.S. 2009. ‘Tā te ipoipo.’ He Papa Huia presentation, AUT University, 17 November 2009.
KāretuKāretu, T.S. 2010. ‘Ngā waiata whakangahau a te hunga mate.’ Unpublished paper.
MNgata, A.T. & Pei Te Hurinui Jones. Ngā Mōteatea The Songs. Third edition. Auckland: Auckland University Press Part 1: 2004, Part 2: 2005, Part 3: 2006, Part 4: 2007.
NM Sir George Grey. 1928. Nga Mahi a nga Tupuna. Third edition. New Plymouth: Thomas Avery & Sons.
Ng Ngata, Hōri M. 1993. Ngata, Hōri M. 1993. English-Maori Dictionary. Wellington: Learning Media.
NIT Pei Te Hurinui. 1995. Pei Te Hurinui. 1995. Ngā Iwi o Tainui. Auckland:Auckland University Press.
NP H.M. Mead & N. Grove. 2001. Ngā Pēpeha a ngā Tīpuna. Wellington: Victoria University Press.
NW Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. 1991. Ngā Whatiwhatinga. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara: Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori.t
NWH Kāretu, T.S. 1978. Ngā Waiata me ngā Haka a Tāua a te Māori. Hamilton: Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato.
Pēhi Best, E. 1942. Forest Lore of the Maori. Wellington: Polynesian Society.
PK Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. 2008. He Pātaka Kupu: Te Kai a te Rangatira. North Shore: Raupo.
Popi Pope, James. 1887. Te Pukapuka Kura Maori. Poneke: Kaita a te Kawanatanga.
Popi Pope, James. 1896. Pope, James. 1896. Te Ora mo te Maori. Poneke: Kaita a te Kawanatanga.
PTThe Bible Society in New Zealand. 1952. Ko Te Paipera Tapu. Wellington: The Bible Society in New Zealand.
Rewi Rewi, P. 2005. Te Ao o te Whaikorero. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Otago.
RP Christensen, Ian. 2009. Te Reo Putaiao. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara: Te Tāhuhu o Te Mātauranga.
RR Karetu, T.S. 1974. Te Reo Rangatira. Wellington: Government Printer.
T Mitchell, J.H. 1944. Takitimu. Wellington: Reed.
TAH Te Ao Hou. Numbers 1-76.
TKI Ministry of Education. Te Kete Ipurangi.
Toi Melbourne, H. 1991. Melbourne, H. 1991. Toiapiapi: he huinga o ngā kura pūoro a te Māori. Te Whanganui a Tara:Titi Tuhiwai.
TrTransactions of the New Zealand Institute.
TT Tikao, TT & H. Beattie. 1990. Tikao Talks: Ka Taoka Tapu o Te Ao Kohatu. Treasures from the Ancient World of the Maori. Auckland: Penguin books.
TTR Orange, C. (ed.). 1990-2000. Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau. Auckland University Press & Te Tari Taiwhenua Volume 1 1990, Volume 2 1994, Volume 3 1996, Volume 4 1998, Volume 5 2000.
TTTT Walker, Piripi & Huriana Raven (eds) 2006. Te Tū a Te Toka: He Ieretanga nō ngā Tai e Whā. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara: Toi Māori Aotearoa.
TWKTe Wharekura. Wellington: Learning Media. Numbers 1-61
W Williams, Herbert W. 1971. Dictionary of the Maori Language. Seventh edition. Wellington: GP Publications.
Wh3 Moorfield, J.C. 2003. Te Whanake 3 Te Māhuri. Auckland: Pearson Education New Zealand.
Wh4 Moorfield, J.C. 2004. Te Whanake 4 Te Kōhure. Auckland: Pearson Education New Zealand.
WW Smith, S.P. 1913. Lore of the Whare-wānanga. Part 1 – Te Kauwae-runga. New Plymouth: Polynesian Society
WW Smith, S.P. 1915. Lore of the Whare-wānanga. Part 2 – Te Kauwae-raro. New Plymouth: Polynesian Society

Referencing of example sentences

Where example sentences have been taken from the sources listed above, the sources are provided in parentheses at the end of the example. The book or newspaper title is given in the abbreviated form (listed above), followed by the date of the publication and the page number, which is preceded by a colon, e.g. (TWMNT 28/5/1873:60). With Te Ao Hou and Te Whare Kura, the number of issue is given instead of the date, e.g. (TAH 58:9) and He Muka references provide the issue number before the year and page number, e.g. (HM 4/2009:3).

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